n. The visual evidence of a rapid reaction between fuel and oxygen.
Within the context of wildland fire, the flame is the portion of the plume above the fire that radiates energy in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Although flames are often observed to be hundreds of feet tall in wildland fires, it is often the case that the observer is defining the individual flamelets (which can be very large) – located above the relatively solid portion of the flame – to be extensions of the flame. For the purposes of energy transfer, safety zone specification, and fire effects, the bulk of the energy transferred from the flame occurs in the lower third of the flame. Visible emission from combustion products occurs only at temperatures above the Draper point (~600C).