Smoldering combustion [Glowing combustion]
n. Combustion that occurs on the fuel surface and is not necessarily associated with the presence of flames.
In the context of wildland fire, smoldering combustion (or “glowing combustion”) relates to the visible combustion of the char and other organic material either on woody fuel or in the organic material found in the litter and duff layers of the ground surface. Smoldering combustion can occur separately from or either before or after flaming combustion. Smoldering combustion sometimes leads to flaming combustion, and on other occasions, it occurs in conjunction with flaming combustion and throughout the entire combustion event.